Because urban fantasy is thought of as unimportant fluff, it often gets a pass on many of the isms that it perpetuates. It never ceases to amaze me that in a genre which is filled with fantastical elements that so many find it difficult to create a world in which serious issues and marginalisations can be discussed or included in anything approaching a realistic or inclusive manner. Appropriation is absolutely rampant in the genre and it is quite common to take serious issues and minimise them by equating them to fantastical creatures. The viewer or reader is meant to identify with the issues of the supernatural creature, even as the portrayal leaves so much to be desired that it ends up stigmatising the very issue that the genre is supposedly discussing.
One of the recurring topics which urban fantasy has sought to integrate is addiction. One of the most obvious examples in the genre is clearly Being Human (UK). Vampirism in Being Human (UK) is clearly a metaphor for addiction because the vampires in this series can exist for extended periods of time without consuming blood; however, the moment they are turned, they develop an overwhelming desire to consume blood. Essentially, the battle for each vampire seeking to assimilate is to forgo the consumption of blood thereby; making the consumption of blood a moral failing. By making vampirism a metaphor for addiction, Being Human (UK) is essentially saying that addiction in and of itself is monstrous and so are the addicted. This is highly problematic because even though those who love and support the addicted individual suffer, no one suffers more than the addicted person themselves.
It is clear that Being Human (UK) is attempting to create an equivalency between an addicted human and a vampire. While to some degree the biological nature is explored because it is not coincidental that children of alcoholics are far more likely to become alcoholics themselves. However, a propensity for addiction does not make addiction an inherent part of any person’s nature, not even if they go on to become an addict. This contrasts sharply with the blood hunger of a vampire which, by definition, is an inherent, unchanging biological element of who and what they are.
Being Human (UK) is not the only Urban Fantasy to use themes of addiction when it comes to the supernatural. We’ve seen the same themes in Buffy, Secret Circle and even the latest season of The Vampire Diaries, have their addictive dark magic episodes and themes, Being Human (US) even had body hopping addiction with Sally. It’s common in books as well, with Chloe Neil’s Chicagoland vampires exploring magic addiction. Addiction, whether it be to blood, magic, forbidden arts or innumerable other supernatural elements continues to be raised in the genre - but in nearly all cases, addiction is linked to the damage it does to others. The addict is shameful and needs to be stopped not for their own sake, but because of the people they hurt. No-one is stopping Willow or Mallory or worried about Cassie’s dark magic because them living with addiction so much as they are afraid of the people their powers will hurt. No-one is concerned about the difficulties vampires must endure with their blood addiction, interventions are motivated by fear for their victims.
In all cases, the addict is dangerous, a predator, a threat. Not a victim, not someone who is ill, not even someone who needs help particularly, so much as someone who needs to be controlled - not for their own good, but for the good of others.
We see this continue even with more direct addictive parallels. In True Blood vampire blood, V, is addictive and traded as a narcotic - and we do see it treated this way and very well with Andy Bellefleur fighting his addiction with Jason’s help. This is one of the few good examples on television as Andy is treated as an addict, one who needs help for his own sake not for the safety of others but to regain control and power in his own life. However, V also makes people stronger and more dangerous, so Andy Bellefleur’s struggles exists alongside packs of werewolves on V being extra savage and more violent and a threat to those around them. The message of the burden of addiction and recovery from Andy runs along side the monstrous, supernaturally powerful and enhanced addict with the werewolves.
Another element that these depictions of addiction of miss are the causes of addiction. While many people become addicted in many ways and along many paths, the addiction we see in the genre is usually either inherent (i.e. a vampire is “born” with an addiction) or someone stumbles across the substance/magic/whatever, likes it and becomes addicted (as is often the case with Black magic). While this does happen, it’s hardly the only or even the most common story. Many addicts are self-medicating or have been driven to self-medication. Poor mental health services, lack of support nets, violence, trauma, poverty, stress, hopelessness and a huge variety of other pressures can drive people to seek support, comfort or even oblivion however they can. It’s no surprise that marginalised people make up a disproportionate number of addicts, not due to some moral failing (though the hate groups often spin it that way) but simply due to the extra pressures and less support marginalised people often have.